We live in very interesting times. The economic transformations that are changing the fundamental s of our social behavior and the very fabric of our life are tremendous. For instance, email was unknown in the corporate world prior to 1990. Today in a span of just under 20 years email has become so pervasive that, most if not all, businesses would be unable to function efficiently without email communications. Mobile phones were largely unknown prior to 1994. Today, in a span of 15 years the mobile phone has become so ubiquitous that it has rapidly shed its image of a luxury item and now become a necessity. In the Indian context, ATM banking was largely unknown in the country prior to 2000. Today in a span of just 10 years ATMS have proliferated so fast and so much that some banks have actually started limiting the number of teller assisted cash withdrawals that customers can make each month.
Economic change is not only happening, it is happening more and more rapidly. Consider this. Until the 1800s, farming was the main occupation of people. The primary requirement for farming is land - the more the better. Unfortunately, the land that we have inherited is not only limited but with time the increasing population has only hastened to increase the per capita demand on it. In the 19th and 20th centuries the focus shifted from farming to manufacturing, driven to a large extent by the industrial revolution. The spotlight during this time was on increasing productivity, using machines in place of human labor. Machines had a huge advantage over humans – they could work faster, they produced output of consistent quality, they did not get tired and they could work all three shifts if needed. During these two centuries machines came to dominate our lives like never before – their acceptance eased by their promise of freeing us from drudgery and making more free time available for our creative use. While machines changed our lives forever during the industrial era, it took many centuries for the focus to shift from farming to manufacturing.
Yet the next change happened within the next 200 years, when we crossed over from the industrial era into the knowledge era. Today machines are no longer a source of competitive advantage. If I can buy a machine so can the competition. The increased productivity that both of us have is not enough of an advantage anymore. To sell our goods, we both need to add value. There are various ways of adding value – but all of them require leveraging the intellectual capital of the organization to provide a product or a service that is superior to what the competition can provide. This in turn requires the systematic management of Intellectual Capital, since that is the very source of competitive advantage in the knowledge era. In fact, unlike physical assets like machines and land which get depreciated over time and financial assets which get depleted with time, intellectual capital is the only asset that appreciates with time. Doesn’t this sound a bit like having your cake and eating it too? Yet it is true. Very few businesses have realized this truth since we are still in the formative years of the knowledge era. But those that have will surely survive and even thrive in this era and survive into the next.